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POWER

USB Battery Charging - BC 1.2

USB Battery Charging technology ensures that one can safely charge mobile devices through the particular USB Port with Battery Charging Feature support. Previously a USB Portable Device with a battery and charging capability simply took power from a USB port without any control. With “BC 1.2” introduced end of 2010, a Portable Device can get more power and the battery can be charged faster. It is important to verify that a Portable Device complies with the BC 1.2 specifications while communicating with a Charging Downstream Port and identifying a Dedicated Charger, and ensuring that it continues to operate as a functional USB device.

What is Power Delivery

Some external devices, like the computer mouse, also need some power from the USB Port to operate. This power can be delivered through standard USB connection. The Default Power that USB 1.0 and 2.0 can deliver is 2.5Watt (5Volt, 0.5A), USB 3.0 and 3.1 can deliver 4.5Watt (5V, 0.9A), USB 3.2 can deliver 7.5W (5V/1.5A) and USB 4 can deliver 240Watt. For the external devices requiring more power, different technologies have been developed. It is important to distinguish following 2 technologies: “USB Power Delivery” and “USB Battery Charging”.

USB Power Delivery (PD): Power Delivery works equally well with USB2.0, 3.x and 4 allowing power draw up to 240Watt from the source device. The power can be transferred simultaneously with data through the same cable. The goal of this technology is to permit uniform, consistent charging for laptops, tablets, USB-powered drives and similarly higher power consumer electronics. The New 240W cables are referred to as Extended Power Range (EPR) cables and the up to 100W they're referred to as Standard Power Range (SPR). Please note that an Active USB Type C Cable with E-Marker Chip, like the Club 3D CAC-1573, is recommended to use for the Power Delivery up to 240 Watt to ensure safe connection. USB PD3.1 is defined by different profiles and depends on the configuration used by each manufacturer. With the arrival of the PD 3.1 standard there's also a new voltage, 36V introduced also with a max of 5A.

What is Power Delivery

USB Charging Table

Release
name
Release
date
Max.
power
Note
USB Battery Charging 1.03/8/075 V, ? A 
USB Battery Charging 1.14/15/095 V, 1.8 A
USB2.0’s standard-A Port,
1.5A only
USB Battery Charging 1.212/7/105 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 1.0 (version 1.0)7/5/1220 V, 5 A
Using FSK protocol 
over bus power (VBUS)
USB Type-C rev1.08/11/145 V, 3 A
New connector and 
cable specification
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.0)8/11/1420 V, 5 A
Using BMC protocol over
communication channel
(CC) on USB-C cables
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.1)5/7/1520 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.23/25/165 V, 3 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.1)1/12/1720 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.37/14/175 V, 3 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.2)6/21/1820 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.43/29/195 V, 3 A 
USB Type-C rev2.08/29/195 V, 3 A
Enabling USB4 over
USB Type-C 
connectors and cables
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 2.0)8/29/1920 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.1
5/26/21
48 V, 5 A
240W Logo on connector !!

Understanding FRS - Fast-Role-Swap

External Power Source (Fig: A)
When using an external Power Source (Power Charger) the Power is flowing thru the USB Power Delivery Dock and charging the Host laptop. This is achieved by the state of the FRS signal (part of the USB PD definition).

In Fig.A its direction is marked in RED. In case the Power Source looses its Power (for any reason) it will toggle the FRS signal, which is passed on thru the PD capable Dock onto the Host. The Host will recognize this change and acknowledge this signal back to the Dock and revert the Power flow from charging to being the supplier of Power (Fig. B).

Understanding FRS - Fast-Role-Swap

Abbreviations:

What does it mean:
CC:Configuration Channel PD:Power Delivery
DFP:Downstream Facing Port PPS:Programmable Power Supply
DRP:Dual Role Port UFP:Upstream Facing Port
FSR:Fast Role Swap USB:Universal Serial Bus

Example FRS Power Charging

Example FRS Power Charging

What Is A GaN Charger

GaN chargers can power all USB Type-A and -C devices, from your smartphone to laptops. 

What Is A GaN Charger

Why Buy A GaN Charger

The primary reason to buy a GaN charger is that they’re more efficient at transferring current. Chargers made with gallium nitride tend to last longer as well. This means you get more energy put into your device which equates to less time it takes to charge your smartphone or other devices.
The reduction in consumption of materials such as plastic is achieved with the increase in so-called power density that enables smaller components to manage a larger power delivery. A high power density also cuts down recycling and environmental costs.
If every power adapter achieved at least 1% higher efficiency, the world could save about 90 terawatt-hours of energy, equivalent to the output of 12 (average sized)nuclear plants, in addition, if one billion chargers worldwide were to use GaN technology, Approx. 0.2 million tons of plastics and raw materials could be saved(World population approx. 7.9 Billion-June 2022).

Why Buy A GaN Charger

GaN: The Gallium Nitride Secret

As you probably know, computers today are made from silicon chips. This happened because silicon is a, widely available, element and relatively easy to work with. It's also an excellent semiconductor because of its adjustable electrical properties. However, Gallium nitride or GaN is discovered to be a newer, better alternative to silicon. This material is better at conducting higher voltage over longer times compared to silicon. Electrical currents also travel faster through it, allowing for faster processing. This better conductivity leads to higher efficiency. That's because it doesn't need as much energy to get the same output as compared to silicon transistors. It also allowed manufacturers to create chips in a denser, more compact form since less energy meant less heat. GaN chips also have higher voltage capacity and are more resistant to heat, perfect for power transfer applications. All these properties make GaN perfect for charging technologies. It can output the same power as silicon chips without requiring as much space, produce less heat despite having high wattage, and is more power-efficient. That's why you can buy small GaN power chargers that can fast-charge multiple devices while retaining the same size as your current charger.

GaN: The Gallium Nitride Secret

Why Is Gallium Nitride Superior to Silicon?

In layman’s terms, GaN a crystal-like material that can pass through higher voltages faster than silicon. However, if we take a more in-depth sneak into technology, we may require little physics knowledge.
The benefits of GaN compared to silicon boil down to power efficiency “All semiconductor materials have what is called a bandgap. This is an energy range in a solid where no electrons can exist. Simply put, a bandgap is related to how well a solid material can conduct electricity. Gallium nitride has a 3.4 eV bandgap, compared to silicon’s 1.12 eV bandgap. GaN is capable of conducting electrons 1,000 times more efficiently than silicon. A higher bandgap efficiency means the current can pass through a GaN chip faster than a silicon one. 

Benefits of a GaN USB Charger

The benefits of GaN chargers may seem simple and obvious. These wall chargers tend to be physically smaller than silicon chargers. This is only because gallium nitride doesn’t need the components and supports silicon does. 
On average, it will charge a device up to 2.5 times faster than a standard silicon 1A output.

Club 3D GaN Chargers

Club 3D GaN Chargers
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